Fujita-Pearson Tornado Scale
(FPP scale)

...used since 1971 to rate intensity by examining the damage
caused by a tornado after it has passed over a man-made structure
and by measuring approximate path length and width.

CAUTION: the size of a tornado's funnel is not an indication of its intensity.
The Fujita Scale is based on damage, not the appearance of the funnel.

 Enhanced Fujita Scale (EF) for Tornado Damage  


F0 - Gale Tornado (40 - 72 mph)
P0 PATH length: 0.3-0.9 miles  /  P0 PATH width: 6-17 yards

Light damage; Some damage to chimneys; branches broken off trees; shallow-rooted trees pushed over; sign boards damaged.
F1 - Moderate Tornado (73 - 112 mph)
P1 PATH length: 1.0-3.1 miles  /  P1 PATH width: 18-55 yards

Moderate damage; The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed; peels surface off roofs; mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned; moving autos pushed off the road; attached garages may be destroyed.
T.T. Fujita (1920-1998) photo

F2 - Significant Tornado (113 - 157 mph)
P2 PATH length: 3.2-9.9 miles  /  P2 PATH width: 56-175 yards

Considerable damage; entire roofs torn from frame houses; mobile homes demolished; boxcars pushed over; large trees snapped or uprooted; light-object missiles generated.
T.T. Fujita (1920-1998) photo

F3 - Severe Tornado (158 - 206 mph)
P3 PATH length: 10-31 miles  /  P3 PATH width: 176-566 yards

Severe damage; walls torn from well-constructed houses; trains overturned; most trees in forests uprooted; heavy cars lifted off ground and thrown.
T.T. Fujita (1920-1998) photo

F4 - Devastating Tornado (207 - 260 mph)
P4 PATH length: 32-99 miles  /  P4 PATH width: 0.3-0.9 miles

Well-constructed houses leveled; structures with weak foundations blown off some distance; cars thrown and large missiles generated.
T.T. Fujita (1920-1998) photo

F5 - Incredible Tornado (261 - 318 mph)
P5 PATH length: 100-315 miles  /  P5 PATH width: 1.0-3.1 miles

Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate; automobile-sized missiles fly through the air 100 yards or more; trees debarked; steel reinforced concrete structures badly damaged.
T.T. Fujita (1920-1998) photo


Beaufort Wind Scale

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